Catalonia, a wealthy and culturally distinct region in northeastern Spain, has been seeking independence from the central government for decades. The Catalan independence movement, rooted in Catalan nationalism, is a social and political movement that claims the right to self-determination for the Catalan people.
The movement gained momentum in the past decade, fueled by the economic crisis, the erosion of regional autonomy by the Spanish constitutional court, and the perceived fiscal imbalance between Catalonia and the rest of Spain.
In 2014, the Catalan government held a symbolic referendum on independence, which was declared illegal by the Spanish authorities. More than 80% of voters supported secession, but the turnout was low due to a boycott by anti-independence parties.
In 2017, the Catalan government escalated its challenge to Madrid by calling a binding referendum on independence, which was also deemed unconstitutional and banned by the Spanish courts. Despite police repression and violence, more than 2 million people voted in favor of independence, representing 90% of the ballots cast. However, the participation rate was only 43%, as many opponents of secession stayed away from the polls.
On October 27, 2017, the Catalan parliament approved a motion to declare an independent republic, in defiance of the Spanish government and the international community. The same day, the Spanish senate authorized the central government to invoke Article 155 of the constitution, which allows it to suspend the autonomy of any region that acts against the general interest of Spain. The Catalan government was dismissed, its leaders were arrested or fled into exile, and new regional elections were called for December 2017.
The elections resulted in a narrow victory for the pro-independence parties, but they failed to form a stable coalition due to internal divisions and legal obstacles. The Spanish government maintained direct rule over Catalonia until June 2018, when a new Catalan government was finally sworn in under Quim Torra, a close ally of former president Carles Puigdemont, who remains in Belgium to avoid extradition.
Since then, the political deadlock has persisted, as neither side has shown a willingness to compromise or dialogue. The independence movement has faced legal challenges, internal fractures, social polarization, and international isolation. The Spanish government has faced criticism for its heavy-handed response, judicial interference, and lack of dialogue. The Catalan society has remained deeply divided over its identity and future.
In October 2019, tensions flared up again when the Spanish supreme court sentenced nine Catalan leaders to prison terms ranging from nine to thirteen years for sedition and misuse of public funds over their roles in the 2017 referendum and declaration of independence. The verdict sparked massive protests across Catalonia, some of which turned violent and resulted in clashes with police forces.
In 2020, the Spanish government led by Pedro Sánchez agreed to hold a “table of negotiations” with the Catalan government but ruled out any possibility of allowing a referendum on self-determination or recognizing Catalonia as a nation. The talks were suspended due to the Covid-19 pandemic and have not resumed since then.
In 2021, Catalonia held another regional election, which saw a slight increase in support for pro-independence parties, but also a surge in votes for the far-right Vox party, which opposes any concessions to Catalan nationalism. The current Catalan president is Pere Aragonès, who heads a coalition of two pro-independence parties ERC (Republican Left of Catalonia) and JxCat (Together for Catalonia). He has vowed to pursue dialogue with Madrid while maintaining the goal of independence.