The global banking system is facing a crisis of unprecedented proportions as a series of bank failures and bailouts have shaken customer confidence and raised questions about the stability and resilience of the sector.
The crisis began on March 10, when Silicon Valley Bank (SVB), a US bank that specialized in lending to tech companies and startups, collapsed after a run on deposits by panicked customers who feared for their savings. The US government’s Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) took control of SVB and guaranteed its deposits, but the damage was done.
The collapse of SVB sent shockwaves through the global financial system, sparking fears of contagion across other banks that were already struggling with rising interest rates, regulatory pressures, and self-inflicted wounds. Within days, another US regional bank, Signature Bank, was shut down by regulators after suffering heavy losses from its exposure to cryptocurrencies. A third US regional bank, First Republic Bank, was propped up by a $30 billion lifeline from top US banks.
But the biggest threat came from Europe, where Credit Suisse, one of the world’s largest banks and deemed systemically important for the global economy, faced a liquidity crunch after losing billions of dollars from its involvement in several scandals. The Swiss authorities orchestrated a rescue deal that involved selling Credit Suisse to its rival UBS for $54 billion. However, the deal angered bondholders who saw their investments wiped out while shareholders retained some value.
The crisis has exposed the fragility and vulnerability of the global banking system that has not fully recovered from the 2007-2008 financial crisis. It has also eroded customer trust in banks as safe custodians of their money. Many customers have withdrawn their deposits or switched to alternative providers such as fintechs or digital platforms.
To restore confidence and stability in the sector, regulators and policymakers have stepped up their efforts to strengthen banks’ financial resilience and crisis preparedness. They have also urged banks to adopt more sustainable business models that can withstand market shocks and changing customer preferences.
One of the key initiatives is Recovery and Resolution Planning (RRP), which aims to ensure that banks can recover from stress scenarios without public support or minimize disruption to financial stability if they fail. RRP has been introduced in many jurisdictions after the 2007-2008 financial crisis but has not been fully implemented or tested yet.
Another initiative is enhancing banks’ capital buffers and liquidity ratios to absorb potential losses and meet customer withdrawals. Regulators have also imposed stricter rules on banks’ risk management practices, governance structures, disclosure requirements, and conduct standards.
However, these measures may not be enough to prevent another banking crisis or address customer distrust. Banks also need to innovate their products and services to meet changing customer needs and expectations. They need to leverage technology to improve efficiency.