Poland Exits Article 7: A Milestone in EU’s Rule of Law Procedure

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Poland has officially concluded its journey through Article 7, the European Union’s stringent mechanism designed to safeguard the bloc’s core principles. This move, formalized on Wednesday morning, marks the end of a protracted chapter that began in December 2017 when the European Commission initiated Article 7—often dubbed the “nuclear option” due to its potential to suspend a member state’s voting rights—over concerns about Poland’s judicial independence. 


The controversy originated from the sweeping judicial reforms introduced by the then-ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party. These reforms restructured the court system, curtailed the tenure of incumbent judges, and installed government-aligned appointees in key judicial positions. The European Commission vehemently opposed these changes, asserting they compromised the separation of powers, obstructed the proper enforcement of EU law, left investors vulnerable, and jeopardized cooperation with other member states. 


Despite the Commission’s resistance, the PiS-led administration advanced its agenda, including a contentious reform that allowed the Supreme Court’s disciplinary chamber to sanction judges based on their verdicts. In 2021, Poland’s Constitutional Court, whose legitimacy had been questioned due to these reforms, delivered a provocative verdict that contested the supremacy of EU law and the authority of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), intensifying the rift between Warsaw and Brussels. 


However, the political landscape shifted with the 2023 general elections, ushering in a new era under the leadership of Donald Tusk, a former president of the European Council, as prime minister. Tusk’s administration swiftly embarked on mending diplomatic relations and resolving the dispute. 


As part of the reconciliation process, Tusk’s government introduced an “action plan” comprising nine legislative proposals to reinstate judicial independence, issued a ministerial directive to halt unjust disciplinary proceedings against judges, and pledged adherence to the ECJ and the primacy of EU law. These efforts bore fruit: by late February, the Commission released €137 billion in recovery and cohesion funds previously withheld from Poland. By April, Poland received its first tranche of €6.3 billion in grants and loans. 


This development signifies a pivotal moment for the European Union as it demonstrates the resilience of its rule-of-law framework and the potential for resolution through constructive dialogue and reform. 

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